Mechanical Stress and Single Nucleotide Variants Regulate Alternative Splicing of the MYLK Gene.

TitleMechanical Stress and Single Nucleotide Variants Regulate Alternative Splicing of the MYLK Gene.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsMascarenhas JB, Tchourbanov AY, Fan H, Danilov SM, Wang T, Garcia JGN
JournalAm J Respir Cell Mol Biol
Volume56
Issue1
Pagination29-37
Date Published2017 Jan
ISSN Number1535-4989
KeywordsAlternative Splicing, Base Sequence, Computational Biology, Computer Simulation, Consensus Sequence, Exons, HEK293 Cells, Humans, Lymphocytes, Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Reproducibility of Results, RNA Splice Sites, Stress, Mechanical
Abstract

<p>The nonmuscle (nm) myosin light-chain kinase isoform (MLCK), encoded by the MYLK gene, is a vital participant in regulating vascular barrier responses to mechanical and inflammatory stimuli. We determined that MYLK is alternatively spliced, yielding functionally distinct nmMLCK splice variants including nmMLCK2, a splice variant highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells (EC) and associated with reduced EC barrier integrity. We demonstrated previously that the nmMLCK2 variant lacks exon 11, which encodes a key regulatory region containing two differentially phosphorylated tyrosine residues (Y(464) and Y(471)) that influence vascular barrier function during inflammation. In this study, we used minigene constructs and RT-PCR to interrogate biophysical factors (mechanical stress) and genetic variants (MYLK single-nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) that are potentially involved in regulating MYLK alternative splicing and nmMLCK2 generation. Human lung EC exposed to pathologic mechanical stress (18% cyclic stretch) produced increased nmMLCK2 expression relative to levels of nmMLCK1 with alternative splicing significantly influenced by MYLK SNPs rs77323602 and rs147245669. In silico analyses predicted that these variants would alter exon 11 donor and acceptor sites for alternative splicing, computational predictions that were confirmed by minigene studies. The introduction of rs77323602 favored wild-type nmMLCK expression, whereas rs147245669 favored alternative splicing and deletion of exon 11, yielding increased nmMLCK2 expression. Finally, lymphoblastoid cell lines selectively harboring these MYLK SNPs (rs77323602 and rs147245669) directly validated SNP-specific effects on MYLK alternative splicing and nmMLCK2 generation. Together, these studies demonstrate that mechanical stress and MYLK SNPs regulate MYLK alternative splicing and generation of a splice variant, nmMLCK2, that contributes to the severity of inflammatory injury.</p>

DOI10.1165/rcmb.2016-0053OC
Alternate JournalAm. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.
PubMed ID27529643
PubMed Central IDPMC5248959
Grant ListP01 HL126609 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
R01 HL091889 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States